The frog: Trimming
of the frog should be done to sufficiently restore shape to the horny structure. (Horny frog should resemble sensitive frog.
) All diseased portions of the frog should be removed. As much healthy tissue as possible should be retained. On rare occasions
the frog may be oversized and need to be reduced in size.
The bars:The bars are extensions of the hoof wall and should be shaped
to allow some weight bearing. Desirable shape is level with the ground surface at the outer perimeter of the heels, tapering
to be the level of the sole at the apex or anterior ends. Bars should not be trimmed below the level of the sole. Protruding
bars can cause compression of the internal laminae leaves which form them. This can result in internal bruising which may
predispose the foot to corns.
The sole: The amount of surplus sole which should be removed is relevant to the amount of
excess growth and sometimes the activity of the horse. Normally, sole is removed in the toe hemisphere of the foot until it
becomes shiny or glossy in appearance. Dead sole is usually flaky and contains many fissures. Once enough sole has been removed,
the cracks or fissures will be less apparent. The sole to the rear of the toe should blend smoothly to sole of the toe wall.
The sole should be concaved below the boarder of the hoof wall. Remember: the wall is the primary weight-bearing structure.
The wall: The hoof wall should be trimmed to just above sole level at the
toe. The amount of wall trimmed at the heel should be proportional to the amount off of the toe. The proportion is considered
correct when both feet are weight bearing and are neither broken forward nor broken back. (P1, P2, and P3 are in alignment.)
In most cases, the hoof wall should contact the ground with the medial and lateral sides making even contact. The proximal
or upper 2 inches or the hoof wall dictates its natural slope.
All dishes or flares should be removed until they become
part of this natural slope. Remodeling of abnormally flared or shaped feet is a commendable practice. There is a lot of strong
prejudice against this procedure because it involves vigorous rasping of the outer hoof wall. This way of thinking is outdated
and should be discouraged. All sharp edges at the distal border of the wall should be removed and slightly rounded.
should be selected to suit the activity of the horse. Normally, shoes are for the purpose of protection of the feet and support
of the limbs. The most common error made by inexperienced or careless horseshoers is the use of shoes which are too small.
The shoe should be as light as practical, but wide enough to offer sufficient protection to the bottom of the foot. The fit
should be exactly to the perimeter of the foot at the toe and quarters. The shoe should fit slightly wider than the foot near
the heels. (Approximately 1-1/2" of the heel of the shoe.) This is called expansion and the amount of expansion ranges from
1/16" - 3/16".
On front feet, the shoe should at least be large enough to cover the buttress of the heels. On horses with
underrun heels, the shoe may need to extend past the buttress of the heels as much as 1/2". This provides additional support
to the flexor tendons and suspensory ligament.
On most hind feet, the fit will be the same as front feet except that it
is desirable for the heels of the shoes to extend beyond the buttress of the heels 1/8" - 1/4". This provides support and
protection to the bulbs of the heels while the horse is stopping or turning. If a horse has a deformed or broken off edge
on the hoof wall, it is proper to fit the shoe full in this area where the foot should be.
Nailing: For most activities, six nails should be sufficient to attach
the shoe to the foot. Eight nails may be used on horses to be used in rough terrain or are troublesome about keeping shoes
on. Height of the nails should be no lower than 3/4" above the shoes and no higher than 1". High nailing is preferred by most
professional farriers. On some feet nails driven above 1" may be desirable for secure nailing.
Clinching and Finishing: Clinches should be square in shape, embedded in
the wall and smooth to the touch. The outer hoof wall should be smooth to the touch and free from coarse rasp marks. The periople
at the hairline should be undisturbed.
© J. Scott Simpson